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|Referát vhodný pre:||Gymnázium||Počet A4:||4.1|
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Over many centuries, human societies across the globe have established progressively closer contacts. Changes in communications, transportation, and computer technology have given new power to the process and made the world more interdependent than ever. Multinational corporations manufacture products in many countries and sell to consumers around the world. Money, technology and raw materials move more swiftly across national borders. Along with products and finances, ideas and cultures circulate more freely. As a result, laws, economies, and social movements are forming at the international level.
The term globalization includes a range of social, political, and economic changes. Globalization expands and accelerates the exchange of ideas and products over huge distances. Citizens all over the world can work together to shape alternate futures, to build a globalization of cooperation, solidarity and respect for our common planetary environment.
Globalization describes a continuing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become united through a globe-spanning network of communication and execution. The term is sometimes used to refer specifically to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology. Globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors.
HOW IT BEGAN
First step for beginning of globalization was revolution in transportation in the second half of 20th century. Thanks to quicker transportation, companies could make business also with partners from the opposite side of Earth. Innovators were the United States of America, because they expanded to the European countries in 1960s. Later, also other countries joined globalization. In 1970s started development of Japan economy and Japan’s products were spread into all countries.
Main cities of globalization were always big cities, in which were decreased cultural differences in last 40 years. These cities are for example Berlin, London, New York... They are sometimes called melting pots. Globalization includes migration (Europe – Chinese, Turkey people, Northern America – Mexicans, mainly in the USA). Globalization is the biggest in developed areas with intense and developed transportation.
Phenomenon of globalization is Internet, which connects people and enables quicker communication and makes globalization of information and messages. All medias are bringing us news about foreign events. We get used to it so much, that we do not count them as a part of globalization.
Globalization has various categories which affect the world in several different ways, for example:
•Industrial - emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and companies. Movement of material and goods between national boundaries.
•Financial - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for borrowers. By the early part of the 21st century more than $1.5 trillion in national currencies were traded daily to support the expanded levels of trade and investment.
•Economic - realization of a global common market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital. The interconnectedness of these markets, however meant that an economic collapse in any one given country could not be contained.
•Political - some use "globalization" to mean the creation of a world government which regulates the relationships among governments and guarantees the rights arising from social and economic globalization.
•Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations. This is a technological change with the advent of fibre optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of telephone and Internet.
•Language - the most popular language is Mandarin (845 million speakers) followed by Spanish (329 million speakers) and English (328 million speakers).
- About 35% of the world's mail, telexes, and cables are in English.
- Approximately 40% of the world's radio programs are in English.
- About 50% of all Internet traffic uses English.
•Ecological - the advent of global environmental challenges that might be solved with international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of invasive species. Since many factories are built in developing countries with less environmental regulation, globalism and free trade may increase pollution.
•Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; arrival of new categories of consciousness and identities which includes cultural diffusion, the desire to increase one's standard of living and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture". Some bemoan the resulting consumerism and loss of languages. We can also see transformation of culture.
- Spreading of multiculturalism, and better individual access to cultural diversity.
- Greater international traveling and tourism. Greater immigration, including illegal immigration.
- Spread of local consumer products (e.g., food) to other countries (often adapted to their culture).
- Pop culture such as Pokémon, Sudoku, Origami, YouTube, Orkut, Facebook, and MySpace.
- Worldwide sporting events such as FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games.