|Referát vhodný pre:||Gymnázium||Počet A4:||2.5|
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Capital of the Pre-Inca Civilization was Tiahuanaco. Inca Civilization was an aboriginal American Indian culture. There is a pre-Incan legend that speaks of Viracocha – good god and the warrior. We see him as god in the white robes who brings knowledge and the warrior god with staves in his hands and a sun symbol around his head. Exact origins of Inca civilization are unknown, but it originated approximately in 1438 AD and it lasted only 100 years. The incredible expansion of the Inca Empire began with Viracocha's son Pachacuti. With his accession in 1438 AD reliable history began, almost all the chroniclers being in practical agreement. Pachacuti was called the greatest man that the aboriginal race of America has produced. He and his son Topa Inca were powerful rulers conquering many lands as they built their kingdom.
The Maya are probably the best known of ancient societies in Mesoamerica. Its history began around 2600 BC in the Yucatan. The Maya were noted for decorated ceremonial architecture, including temples, pyramids, palaces…The first true civilization was established with the rise of the Olmecs in the Pre-Classic period 1500 BC - 300 AD. The Mayan civilization was the height of pre-Columbian culture. They made significant discoveries in science, including the use of the zero in mathematics. Their writing was the only in America capable of expressing all types of thought.
Sumerians – civilization in southern Mesopotamia, near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Sumerian civilization spanned over 3000 years, Sumerian history reaches back to the 26th century BC and before. Their writing is the oldest full-fledged writing that archaeologists have discovered. The Sumerians wrote poetically, describing events as the work of their gods, and they wrote to please their gods.
Egyptians had advantage of river Nile. The floods brought good, fresh soil. It also gave them chance to catch many fishes, and provided protection from attack. Egyptians produced papyrus, which is used until today. They also developed hieroglyphs which helped to get our modern alphabet. Egypt is still famous for huge pyramids built in ancient times. The first pyramids were called "Step Pyramids" because they looked like giant steps. Egyptians believed in another life after death, and this leads to how pyramids were used. When a pharaoh died, he or she was embalmed, and set in a sarcophagus inside the pyramid. There were jewels, food, and other things the pharaoh would need in the next life. These embalmed pharaohs are called mummies.
City of Rome was founded in 753 BC on the Tiber River. Rome became republic in 6th century BC. This meant that a group of people, called the Senate, made the laws for the people of Rome. Romans participated in Punic Wars – between Rome and Carthage. One of the results of this war was the Roman invention of the corvus. It was a wooden plank that was carried on a ship and used to lock two ships together so soldiers could cross from one ship to another and fight.
Greece was divided into smaller city-states. For example: -Sparta, with strong army; -Athens, birthplace of democracy, practice of ostracism, city from which were philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, Plato; -Olympia, which had the Olympics, great athletic contests that soldiers and others took part in, even during wars. There was Peloponnesian War, in which were fighting Sparta against Athens. Then there was also Persian War, between Athens and Persian Empire.
Aztecs - civilization in Mesoamerica from 12 to 16th century. The centre of the Aztec civilization was the Mexico. There they built a great civilization including cities, pyramids, and temples. In 1519 Spanish conquistadors arrived in Mexico and defeated the Aztecs. By the 1400's and into the early 1500's, the Aztecs had established one of the most advanced civilizations in the Americas. Some of their cities at that time were as large as any in Europe. Aztecs have made a lasting mark on Mexican culture.
Phoenicians lived on the Mediterranean coast from 1200 to 800 BC. They became best known for manufacturing and trade. Due to their sailing skills, the Phoenicians served as missionaries of civilization, bringing eastern Mediterranean products and culture to less advanced peoples. They had alphabet of 550 characters with a phonetic alphabet, based on distinct sounds. They replaced it by alphabet consisting of 22 letters. After further alterations by the Greeks and Romans, this alphabet became the one we use today.